Once the wax mold is perfect, a plug is cut into it and wax spurs are attached at various points.
This is called gating and it creates a passage through which the hot gasses can leave when
the hot bronze is poured into the wax mold. The wax molds are then coated with several layers
of very fine ceramic mud. layer after layer is applied and allowed to dry, this forms a hard,
fire proof ceramic shell around the wax mold.
It is at this point that the ceramic shell is heated and the wax mold within melts out
and the molten bronze is poured into the shell. It is very crucial to maintain a temperature
of 1500-2000 F. to assure a good casting of bronze. Once the bronze has cooled the shell is chipped
away and the bronze spurs or gates are removed and the sculpture is ready to be metal chased.
The metal chasing is a process by which the sculpture is tooled to restore the original surface
details and to patch the spur holes and correct imperfections that may have occurred in the casting process.
The final stage of creating the bronze sculpture is to apply a color or patina.
This is done using a combination of chemicals and heat, the color and tone
of the patina depends upon the chemical formula and the manner in which the
sculptor hand rubs or polishes the piece. Once the desired affect is achieved,
the sculpture is given a protective coating of wax.